Bsides Ahmedabad - Dark side of DeFi

A presentation about smart contract miss-use and how to protect yourself in this space.

crypto
DeFi
security
  1. Home
  2. Google Slide
  3. Bsides Ahmedabad - Dark side of DeFi

Bsides Ahmedabad - Dark side of DeFi

A presentation about smart contract miss-use and how to protect yourself in this space.

crypto, DeFi, security

The Dark Side of DeFi

Smart contract triagers at @immunefi

Interested in investigating EVM based defi hacks.

Previously worked as an appsec engineer in web2 space.

Create educational content.

@immunefi-team/community-challenges

https://immunefi.medium.com

ArbazKiraak

0xrudrapratap

Who are we

What are smart contracts

Web2 vs Web3 application architecture flow

Most common decentralized application(DAPP) vulnerabilities

Most common smart contract vulnerabilities

Outro - Get started with smart contract hacking resources

Agenda

What are smart contracts?

Immutable program code containing set of instructions to be executed.

Run on decentralized blockchain network such as Ethereum, Solana, Polkadot etc

Extensively written in high level languages like Solidity, Vyper, Rust, Stacks etc

Contains set of OPCODES which interacts with the EVM (Ethereum virtual Machine)

Web2 vs Web3 Architecture

What are these wallets?

Creates a digital identity on the blockchain.

Generates a pair of private key and public key

Private key(secp256k1) gives access to the wallet

Public key represents your address

Handles the communication between smart contracts and the frontend

Read, Write, Execute instruction

Store digital assets

Ethereum or ERC20 tokens like USDT etc

ERC721 (NFT) assets.

Other many variants.

How does authentication works?

Compared with current web2

Meant to be public in nature.

Digital signatures are used to verify the ownership of an account.

Use case: Signature owner can create a offline signature, then pass it to other user or contract that can use the signature to broadcast the transaction on behalf of the signer while paying the gas fee on behalf of the signer.

Why Signatures?

Auth Flow

1. User Initiates login and sends request to backend to create a random nonce.

2. User signs a message which contains (message + nonce) with wallet to create a unique signature.

3. Backend verifies the signature by recovering the address of signer and generate the auth token.

4. Backend expires the current nonce, so a unique nonce is created next time the user login.

Example of Auth Workflow

Missing random nonce

Signature Replay

Validator accepts arbitrary message.

{sigHash:"0xabc..",userAddr:"[victim address]"}

Logged in as victim.

Authentication Vulnerabilities

Applications that generate signatures but do not use a random nonce to generate the signatures are vulnerable to replay attacks.

No nonce is used to generate a signature therefore making it vulnerable to signature replay attacks.

Missing Random Nonce

When a cryptographic signature intended for a single use is permitted to be replayed repeatedly, leads to signature replay attacks.

If an application only verifies the user-supplied signature without validating whether the provided message and signature are the same as those required by the application to generate JWT tokens, an authentication bypass could happen.

Validator Arbitrary accepts any message

> We substituted a random signature picked from the database of Ethereum Verified Signatures for each of the three parameter

Address

Signature

and message.

> If the application is not verifying that the message signed by the user is different from what the application asked the user to sign, an attacker could produce an auth token on the victim's behalf.

Validator Arbitrary accepts any message hash

Client Side Injections

Javascript injections (XSS)

Substituting the contract addresses.

Modifying transaction arguments or parameters.

Severity stands critical considering the digital assets at risk.

source: coindesk

Decentralized finance (DeFi)

Financial ecosystem based on blockchain technology.

It’s lets users buy and sell assets and perform financial services as a form of investment or financing without middleman.

Such as Decentralized Exchange(DEX), Borrow-Lending, Yield farming, Derivatives, etc.

Common smart contract vulnerabilities

01

Unsafe external calls

03

Insecure external dependencies

02

Griefing vulnerability

External Calls

Calls to 3rd party address that we do not control

Calls to untrusted contracts can introduce several unexpected risks or errors.

External calls controlled by an attacker may force your contract to transition into an undefined state.

Types of External Calls

01

STATIC - CALL

02

DELEGATE-CALL

Re-entrancy attack (call method)

A reentrancy attack occurs when a function makes an external call to another untrusted contract

Then the untrusted contract makes a recursive callback to the vulnerable contract function to steal funds.

1. EOA (Externally Owned Accounts)

2. Smart contracts themselves

But first, Who can be the callers?

Example re-entrancy attack (call method)

How to fix this vulnerability?

Mutex locking

CEI (checks effects interaction) pattern

Comparison with CEI pattern

Reentrancy vulnerable pattern

CEI (checks effects interaction) pattern

Short intro to delegate(call)

DELEGATE CALL

setNum(5)

CONTRACT-A

CONTRACT-B

SLOT

Contract - A

Contract - B

0

5

0

1

…..

0

Execution occurs in contract B while updating the storage in contract A.

Using this method, contract can preserve the storage state while using the logic of contract.

Introduced the concept of Proxies.

Example of the delegatecall

Storage layout

SAVE STATE

Delegate(call) and proxies

The proxy contract redirects all the calls it receives to an logic contract, whose address is stored in its (Contract A’s) storage.

The proxy contract runs Contract B’s code as its own, modifying the storage and balance of Contract A.

Transparent Proxy Pattern (TPP)

upgrade logic is stored in proxy itself.

gas-inefficient.

Universal Upgradable Proxy Standard (UUPS)

upgrade logic is stored in logic itself.

gas-efficient.

Types of Proxies Patterns

By calling the upgrade function, the storage slot on the proxy contract is updated to point to a new logic contract.

Uninitialized proxy bug

Lot of developers often leave the contracts uninitialized. This is not an problem in most cases, but problematic when it leads to some major changes like: granting ownership to the caller.

Owner of the contract can upgrade the implementation contract.

This bug can lead to the self-destruction of the logic contract, which could render the proxy contracts useless.

CALL

DELEGATE CALL

(PROXY)

( DATA )

( LOGIC )

SAVE STATE

RETURN

DELEGATE CALL

( LOGIC )

SELFDESTRUCT

CALL

( PROXY)

( DATA )

DELEGATE CALL

CALL

( EVIL )

Its storage and code are erased from the blockchain.

Proxy contract is bricked.

Normal Workflow.

1. Malicious user deploys Evil contract containing SELFDESTRUCT opcode.

2. Delegate(call) to Evil contract.

SAVE STATE

UUPS pattern uninitialized proxy bug

Wormhole bridge protocol : Attacker can held the entire protocol for ransom ($1.8 billion)

$10M Bounty : https://medium.com/immunefi/wormhole-uninitialized-proxy-bugfix-review-90250c41a43a

POC: https://github.com/immunefi-team/wormhole-uninitialized

makes the caller owner

Push vs Pull Pattern

Contract with logic with transferring ether to the user.

Which involves the risk associated with transferring ether to the user as this external call could fail. If the receiving address is a contract.

it could have a fallback function implemented that simply throws an exception, once it gets called.

Another reason for failure is running out of gas.

NFT Auction Workflow (Push Pattern)

100$ BID

200$ BID

REFUND 100$

NFT AUCTION

(USER-1)

(USER-2)

https://github.com/immunefi-team/community-challenges/blob/master/contracts/vulnerable/Auction.sol

Auction Workflow (Push vs Pull)

100$ BID

200$ BID

REJECT REFUND

NFT AUCTION

Deploy

( EVIL )

(ATTACKER)

(USER)

1. Malicious user deploys Evil contract containing exception condition to revert any incoming calls.

2. Contract is forced into a Griefing state.

100$ BID

200$ BID

CLAIM 100$

NFT AUCTION

(USER-1)

(USER-2)

Push Pattern

Pull Pattern

Spot Price Dependency

Price Oracles

A price oracle is a tool used to view the price information of a given asset.

On-chain oracles rely on constant-product AMMs, like UniswapV2 or Balancer.

Users rely on the current ratio of two tokens. For example, the ETH-DAI ratio gives us the current price of an ETH.

Onchain Spot Price

Finding the price of WBTC in ETH on Uniswap V2 pair for ETH/WBTC, grab the reserve balance of ETH and WBTC, then divide the two.

X = 20 WBTC , Y = 100 ETH

P(y) = Y / X

P(y) = 100 / 20 = 5 ETH per WBTC

(Easily impact the price movement by buying and selling)

Manipulating the large volume with flash loan (considering high liquidity)

Exploiting on borrowing platform as example. (spot price dependency)

Spot Price Dependency Example

1 ETH

10 ETH,

100k USDT

Borrow 900 USDT

querying price of 1 ETH

$1000

ETH/USDT

ETH/USDT

10k USDT

10k USDT

8 ETH

10 ETH,

100k USDT

ETH/USDT

querying price of 1 ETH

$10k

Borrow 72K USDT

Supply 8 ETH

8 ETH

Inflates the price of ETH

ORACLE

ORACLE

ORACLE

VAULT

VAULT

Supply 1 ETH

Relying on TWAP (Time Weighted Average Price)

Average price between the time intervals.

M-of-N Reporters

Averaging the price between the multiple AMM products like Uniswap, MakerDAO, Balancer etc , and offchain oracle’s like chainlink.

Hard choices, but better than spot price

Lack of Access Control

Creates a griefing opportunity by disrupting the operations of the protocol.

Blacklist/Whitelist any user on the contract.

Missing Authorization Check

Sense Finance : Lack of access control updating oracle data

Anyone can call the onSwap() which updates the stored oracle information on the pool contract.

https://medium.com/immunefi/sense-finance-access-control-issue-bugfix-review-32e0c806b1a0

Fixed by adding caller check

Why bug bounties and role of Immunefi?

When code is law and code is money, then a bug that is exploited is just straight money for the exploiter.

Protecting from the biggest threats of space.

L

Bsides Ahmedabad - Dark side of DeFi
Info
Tags Crypto, DeFi, Security
Type Google Slide
Published 21/11/2022, 17:01:40

Resources

Polynetwork and Hacker Communicate